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El arte de anticipar la calidad, el precio y el recorrido de un vino

Crus et Domaine de France trae por pimera vez a España la avanzada de Burdeos: el gran mercado de ventas en primeur, el mayor espectáculo del mundo de la comercialización de algunos de los mejores vinos del mundo

eguro que usted sabe que el vino de Burdeos es uno de los más prestigiosos del mundo. ¿Pero sabe cómo se vende? Tome nota. Cada año entre los meses de abril y junio que siguen a la vendimia, una buena parte de esos vinos se venden en lo que se denomina en primeur (en estreno, en primicia) o en avanzada. Se hace cuando el vino está aún en la barrica, sin terminar. El vino en ese momento es, en parte, una realidad, y a la vez una promesa. Los expertos vaticinan en ese momento, cuando el vino aún está haciéndose en la paz de las bodegas, cuáles serán los que tengan más proyección. Se negocian precios y cantidades cuando aún hay disponible. Hablamos de vinos que se arrebatarán de las manos a los bodegueros.


Los productores se garantizan así la venta del vino, poniéndose a salvo de que la calidad final no sea la intuida o de que la situación económica se deteriore afectando al precio del producto. El riesgo pasa al último eslabón de la cadena, que son los distribuidores que lo han adquirido, quienes en caso contrario, también pueden obtener importantes beneficios si termina siendo una añada excepcional. Este sistema ha ido perfeccionándose y niquelándose con el tiempo hasta alcanzar hoy unos mecanismos engrasados y preciosistas. Hasta mitad del siglo XX incluso se vendía el vino cuando la uva aún colgaba de la viña (sur souche), lo que sin duda incrementaba el riesgo para el comprador.

Como todo en Francia, el sistema es laberíntico, burocrático, reglado y basado en inercias asentadas por la historia y la tradición. Los châteaux (las bodegas) fijan el precio del vino. Y aquí entra en escena una figura clave: los courtiers (los corredores), que son los intermediarios a los que hay que contratar forzosamente. Estos llevan asentados en la Grand Place de Burdeos, desde el siglo XVII. Hoy son algo menos de un centenar, y la jerarquía y el pedigrí de los apellidos influye en su posicionamiento en el negocio. Son conocidos como Mister Dosporciento, que es el porcentaje que se llevan de cada transacción. Ellos, a su vez, deciden cuánta cantidad y a quien le colocan cada vino. Los courtiers cierran esa transición con los negociants, que son los mayoristas que poseen almacenes en los muelles de Burdeos. Estos venden después esos cupos a distribuidores importadores y tiendas de todo el mundo añadiéndole entre un 10% y un 20% de margen al precio.

Entre abril y mayo se desata la feria de las vanidades: los grandes críticos de vinos -esos que tiene capacidad real de alterar el precio del producto con su opinión- prueban la añada y publican sus primeras notas de cata señalando el camino. A partir de ahí se desata cierta efervescencia. Las bodegas suelen colocar un precio al primer cupo que sacan al mercado (premiere tranche) a la espera de la respuesta de los compradores. Si es muy favorable, el segundo cupo (deuxième tranche) aumenta.

Críticos como Quarin, Suckling y especialmente Robert Parker tienen mucho que decir en el beneficio de las bodegas y en toda la cadena de valor. Sus críticas son como la biblia para los compradores especializados. No hablamos solo de aficionados con recursos suficientes -muchos cupos van a parar íntegramente a manos de chinos y rusos -sino también de los wine-funds, fondos de inversión especializados en los vinos de Burdeos. Años después de venderse podrá encontrar muchos de estos tesoros vinícolas en salas de subastas y portales especializados con los precios disparados. Es el territorio de las marcas míticas: Latour, Mouton, Margaux o Lafite, entre otras. Todo depende de la calidad de la añada, la opinión de los críticos y la disponibilidad. Todo sucederá en el gran circo de La Grand place de Burdeos, ese lugar que el periodista Jesús Rodríguez llama “el Wall Street del vino”, donde además de los grandes vinos bordeleses ya se comercializan los grandes italianos o del nuevo mundo y algunos españoles.

Olivier Poussier, (a la derecha), mejor sumiller del mundo 2020

Esta semana se ha celebrado por primera vez en España una avanzada de vinos de Burdeos. Ha sido de la mano de Crus et Domaine de France, del grupo Les Grands Chais de France, una empresa familiar que es uno de los actores más relevantes en el mundo del burdeos. Controla un mercado anual de 500 millones de botellas, es el número uno en exportación de vinos franceses a 173 países. Con la presencia de una de las hijas de la familia Helfrich, se celebró una aproximación a la añada 2021, oficiada por Olivier Poussier, uno de los sumilleres más reconocidos del mundo.

2021 fue un año complicado para el vino de Burdeos por las heladas a principio de abril tras un mes de marzo templado (con 23 grados media). El vino tiene una graduación de alcohol moderada (en torno a los 13,5 grados), que es “lo opuesto a lo que cabría esperar con el calentamiento debido al cambio climático”, explica Poussier, enemigo de la moda -hoy en feliz retirada- forzada por algunos críticos de vinos densos, pesados y casi impenetrables. Serán vinos más suaves, agradables al paladar. El rendimiento ha sido bajo, casi un 20º% de lo habitual en esta denominación.

Se cataron seis vinos de 2021 en primeur. Esta es la opinión de Poussier, quien opina que, en general, con las incidencias meteorológicas del año, Burdeos recupera unos vinos más frescos y ligeros, huyendo de vinos pesados y densos, algo que a su juicio representa un reencuentro con el clasicismo bordelés.

-1- Domaine de Chevalier / 75% Sauvignon blanc y 25% semillon


La varietal Sauvignon le ayuda a adaptarse bien al calentamiento global. Va a dar mucho juego en el futuro porque se vuelve mineral con el tiempo. Muy redondo en boca, con mucho volumen. Al tener menos grados se va a empapar menos de la madera. Un vino muy interesante

-2- Chateau Cantemerle / 60% Cabernet Sauvignon, 20% merlot, 9% cabernet franc y 5% petit Verdot


Expresa bien el frescor del clima de 2022. Sápido y respetando muy bien la identidad del año, sn estructur de taninos secos, un vino “al dente”: Es voluptuoso. Tiene poca barrica nueva. El roble dsale al final de la cata y representa bien el clacisismo bordelés. Notas florales, aromático, con mucha fruta, mineral , toques de grafito, muy elegante.

-3- Chateau Catenac Brown / 73% de cabernet sauvingnon, 27% de merlot


Es de los vinos de la zona con mayor porcentaje de cabernet sauvingnon. Potente, con una boca intensa, voluminoso y taninos finos. Es pese a todo fresco aunque persistente. No es muy vegetal, como ocurrió en 2013. Se va a desarrollar muy bien, evolucionará a mejor durante la crianza. Es poco pesado y fácil de beber.

-4– Clos du Marquis (Saint-Julien) / 65% cabernet Sauvignon, 14% cabernet franc, 14% merlot.


Es la segunda marca de Léoville las Cases, aunque ya se puede considerar un vino con personalidad propia, no una segunda etiqueta. Se presenta con 13,4 grados que hacen un vino fresco, con mucha verticalidad y muy voluptuoso. Muy redondo y rectilíneo, con gran equilibrio vegetal. Pimentón, pimiento del piquillo en boca. Tiene cuerpo. Es un cabernet directo, recto, con grafito y el frescor necesario.

-5- Domaine de Chevalier / 80% cabernet Sauvignon, 10% merlot, 5% cabernet franc, 5% petit verdot


Es una cabernet muy bien trabajada. El vino es elegante, sutil, con los taninos aportándole finura y personalidad. Tiene charme (encanto). Seductor. Es un excelente vino para 2021. Los vinos de este año vienen ligeramente “infusionados” por el roble, sin excesos.

-6- Clos Fourtet / 90% merlot, 10% cabernet franc


Su terroir es muy calcáreo y de gran calidad, lo que le presta notas salinas excelentes. Esta merlot tiene características de la cabernet franc. Ofrece un postgusto muy largo, el vino se estira en la boca. Es un fruto exacto de su parcela, tiene frescor y profundidad. El frescor le permite a la merlot expresar mejor su terroir, como en este caso. Posiblemente los merlot de la orilla derecha del estuario del Gironda son mejores en 2021 que los de la izquierda.

Instagram: @anthdezrodicio / Twitter: @AHRodicio

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